Energie und Rohstoffe: Gestaltung unserer nachhaltigen Zukunft (German Edition)
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Agricultural production prevails over ca. The rather small share in agricultural land-use is explained by the large share of the semi-arid Caatinga biome in the Northeast with dominating extensive agriculture mainly cattle ranching. Nevertheless, livestock farming is responsible for decreasing forest area in originally pristine forests in the neighbouring Cerrado biome.
Technologiemetalle – Systemische Voraussetzungen entlang der Recyclingkette
This change that encompasses the development of industrial agriculture, takes place on soils that are partly several tens of millions of years old. Soils that — different from those in Europe and North America have left behind their state of maturity and which are partly decoupled from their bedrock lithogeochemistry[ 11 , 19 , 20 ]. The biomes have adapted in an evolutionary manner to regional element cycles and carry voluptuous vegetation wherever enough water is available — despite very low nutrient availability.
Yet this constellation challenges the modern agricultural practice and human adaptive capacities if sustainable land-use is to be achieved despite the unfavourable boundary conditions nutrient, humus. To develop an appropriate and sustainable soil protection strategy , an initial and thorough investigation of the soil status is needed, including the explanation why the current status is the way it is and which processes were and are responsible. This is true for any spatial scale; yet a local or even spot analysis may require modified methods as compared to a regional or continental approach.
The required knowledge is a non-negotiable base for any type of measure to improve or preserve e.
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Depending of the defined goals and the objective necessities, consequences and boundary conditions emerge that allow the decision makers to trigger meaningful measures and activities. Starting with the initially formulated hypothesis, the given examples and many others demonstrate that anthropogenic soil pollution does not occur ubiquitously and that even in densely populated areas e. Such insight eases the distinct identification of truly contaminated areas that may then be treated appropriately. Such action may reach from rather inexpensive withdrawal from common use to partly very expensive remediation.
Soils of different climate zones and regions significantly differ in their geochemistry and their ages and thus their history. Thus simplifying global average values such as WSA is of limited if any value or even misleading for almost any concrete situation.
This is similarly true for the uncritical and un-adapted use of threshold or limit values and related environmental standards. Their application appears meaningful under the fulfilment of three boundary conditions only: i the values are adapted to a defined space, for which the respective directive or law has been formulated; ii the values will include the potential and real mobility of the related elements and thus their bioavailability binding forms, redox and pH-conditions ; and iii the values will not be statistically defined for larger areas see i , but are exclusively based on toxicological evidence.
The latter presents a major challenge and effort, yet it should, e. He died prematurely, fighting a terminal cancer.
The title stems from his words. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.
Research Open Access. Life in extraordinary concentrations a tribute to Peter Beuge. Abstract Background Our growing humankind needs fertile soils for its sustainable development. Results Despite millennia of human soil use agriculture and forestry and perceived abuse mining etc. Conclusions The objective necessity to clean up polluted sites and to avoid additional soil pollution can be strongly supported by acknowledging the highly localized true contamination of soils. The following two key hypotheses are being discussed: Relevant for ecosystems, human health , human triggered soil contamination does not occur ubiquitously, but is largely highly locally focused Table 1 ; Figures 1 and 2 — an important starting point for constructive solutions, The soil chemistry of Europe as an example for the mostly temperate humid climate zone is distinctively different from those in sub tropical regions e.
Table 1 Recommended nomenclature for spatial scales. Figure 1 Arsenic in European topsoil from [ 3 ] : Screening modern geochemical atlases e. At the chosen spatial scale only a rather small part of the observed particularly high concentrations can be identified as anthropogenic anomalies and thus true soil contamination.
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The arguments intend to put the topic soil protection into perspective. This is needed to assess any issue more precisely and to prioritize issues; a prerequisite to successfully tackle the challenges in a more appropriate and problem-oriented manner.
This includes using a unified and precise spatial scale currently missing , which is being introduced in Table 1 [ 5 ]. Europe To its eastern boundary at the Ural mountains, the continent represents an area of ca. Brazil The country has continental dimensions with its area of 8. Today, all of them are partly strongly influenced and have lost their biome character in some sub-regions[ 15 ].
This is particularly eminent for the Atlantic forest, since the coast of Brazil was the focus of European settling and development activities[ 16 ]. The indigenous population showed a very low population density[ 16 ] and had adapted to the mostly very nutrient poor soils Table 3. Mining and smelting started very slowly in the late 16 th Century[ 17 ]. References Worldbank The erosion of civilizations.
University of California Press, Berkeley; In Part 1: Background information, methodology and maps. Geol Survey Finland, Espoo; Geoscience Australia GeoCat ; Enke Verlag, Stuttgart; Technische Denkmale und Geschichte. Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden, Selbstverlag; In Energie und Rohstoffe. Gestaltung unserer nachhaltigen Zukunft. Spektrum Verlag, Heidelberg; Teil 3.
Materialien zum Bodenschutz, Dresden; Geochem Explor Environ Anal , 72 3 — Appl Geochem , 24 7 — A five-member board of directors manages the project and represents the project in external rela-tions. The statements compiled in the project are approved by the board of trustees.
This com-mittee is composed of representatives of the academies, the German scientific community and guests from the political realm.
Website of the Project. Flexibility concepts for the German power supply in Mit Energieszenarien gut beraten German. Incorporating the German Energiewende into a comprehensive European approach Wechselwirkungen im Energiesystem German. Zur Interpretation von Energieszenarien German. Press release of the Academies.
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