13 Histórias de Medo (Portuguese Edition)
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Specific elements: all stories presented the characters with a first name, surname, occupation and place of origin; the stories that were alternatives for the female story had numerals and the male ones had closure statements with a specific word that can be considered slightly out of the context that can be scored even if recalled alone equivalent to the word 'shark' in the Roberto Mota story. Grammatical structure and details: all stories were equivalent regarding the grammatical classes of words, number of words, letters, verbs and nouns per idea item and in total;.
Units of general topics gist : units that summarize the essential ideas of the excerpts of the story were considered, allowing little specific recollection to be granted a point on the secondary scoring system as mentioned in the introduction section. The units of general themes of the female stories were guided directly by those proposed by the WMS-III, which maintains the story equivalent to that of Ana Soares, with a total of 7 themes.
The male stories had these units freely defined by the present authors, since the story that led to the Roberto Mota version was not maintained in the most recent versions of the test in its original English version; this secondary scoring has a total of 8 units for the stories of the male characters.
Readability: reading complexity was calculated with the Flesch Reading Ease Scores adapted for local use in Portuguese. Scores between 75 and denote very easy to read, from 50 to 75 easy, 25 to 50 difficult and below 25 very difficult to read. Following the creation of the alternative stories, they were presented to a group of experts from the Psychology Department of the Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, including memory researchers from different areas of Brazil various sessions including more than 15 experts in each.
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This group of experts proposed changes that were necessary to make the stories easy to understand and equivalent to each other. The authors then determined the scoring criteria, which were subsequently evaluated by the group of memory experts. The final selection of acceptable responses was defined by consensus among the authors. The Appendix shows the scoring criteria for each story.
The original stories in Portuguese 14 , and their organization according to thematic units, can be seen in Table 1. The new alternative stories are presented in Table 2 , which also shows the equivalence to the original stories according to various parameters such as: thematic content, structure sex of the character, their origin and profession, what happened and the resolution of the problem , grammatical details, as well as readability of stories, all of which were scored as easy to read according to the Flesch Readability Ease Scores between 50 and Examples of incorrect responses are also presented.
Stories translated and adapted by Camargo et al. The logical memory test is one of the most used tasks for assessing episodic memory in both clinical and research settings. The use of different stories that have similar characteristics is one of the methods used to improve the validity of repeated assessments.
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The creation of the alternative stories was based on criteria proposed by authors who developed English versions of the task narrative structure, emotional content, readability, number of words, etc. Besides the alternative stories that are similar to the Portuguese version of the WMS-R, the material presented here also includes the additional scoring criteria gist or general themes introduced in later versions of the WMS. Finally, it is important to acknowledge several limitations of the present study.
First of all, there are no available validated versions of the WMS stories in Portuguese for use in Brazil.
Hence, the stimuli used as "models" for this study were those proposed by Camargo et al. The second point refers to the circumscribed aim of the present article, describing only the development of the stories, without testing their validity for clinical populations. This was necessary to show that the alternative versions were created in a similar fashion to those available in English and published in the international literature.
Their equivalence to the model stories, although not presented here, was reported elsewhere. For research purposes, it is recommended that matching control groups be used. However, until appropriate validation studies and norms for the WMS logical memory test are published in Brazil, the alternative stories and detailed correction criteria presented here may be used.
These items may also represent a first step toward the standardization and production of norms of this task for the Brazilian population. Alternative stories and complete scoring criteria for items and general themes gist. The tables below may be used as scoring sheets for each story. Disclosure: The authors report no conflicts of interest. Author contributions.
Silvia Bolognani. Study conception, methodology, data presentation, discussion and writing the initial draft and revision. Monica Miranda. Study conception, methodology, discussion, critical review. Methodology, data presentation, discussion.
Com medo de censura, Alexandre Frota mandará exemplares do seu livro para Portugal
Patricia Rzezak. Study conception, methodology, data presentation, discussion. Orlando Bueno. Study conception, methodology, discussion, critical review, supervision. Sabine Pompeia. Study conception, methodology, critical review, writing the revision. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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